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- PublicationAccès libreReading comprehension strategies used by Chilean deaf adults. A think-aloud study(2023)This qualitative study aimed to identify and analyse reading comprehension strategies used by five deaf adults, 22–47 years old,who were close to complete or had lready completed their studies at a higher education institution. The method chosen was a partial replication of the one used by Banner and Wang (2011) in their think-aloud study to describe cognitive and metacognitive reading comprehension strategies use among deaf students and adults. The present study included similar interview questions and think-aloud procedures, which were conducted by a deaf teacher, native user of Chilean Sign Language (LSCh). Participants read informational texts and were interrupted three times during the reading task to answer questions about their cognitive and metacognitive processes. Results showed that these deaf adults can use strategies from all he categories identified by Pressley and Afflerbach (1995) : constructing meaning, monitoring and improving comprehension, and evaluating comprehension. Some strategies described in the study from Banner and Wang were observed only in individual cases, and some of them were not used at all. The deaf participants of this study also used some strategies that were not included in some previous studies. Since very few deaf adults in Chile have completed higher education, the information provided by this study could be useful in guiding interventions aimed to improve reading comprehension in elementary, highschool, and college DHH students. The relevance of early experiences with reading, and motivational factors associated to reading achievement are discussed.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementContext-dependent alarm responses in wild vervet monkeys(2023)AbstractThe alarm calls of nonhuman primates are occasionally cited as functionally equivalent to lexical word meaning in human language. Recently, however, it has become increasingly unlikely that one-to-one relations between alarm call structures and predator categories are the default, mainly because many call types are produced in multiple contexts, requiring more complex notions of meaning. For example, male vervet monkeys produce the same alarm calls during encounters with terrestrial predators and neighbouring groups, suggesting that recipients require additional information to attribute meaning to the calls. We empirically tested the hypothesis that vervet monkeys take contextual information into account when responding to each other's alarm calls. In playback experiments, we exposed subjects to recordings of male alarm barks during actual intergroup encounters (predator unlikely) or when there was no intergroup encounter (predator likely). Subjects responded more strongly in the no intergroup encounter situations, typically associated with discovering a hiding predator, measured in terms of startle responses, vigilance behaviour and gazing towards the presumed caller. We discuss the significance of using contextual information for meaning attribution in nonhuman primate communication.
- PublicationAccès libreJuvenile vervet monkeys rely on others when responding to danger(2023)AbstractPrimate alarm calls are mainly hardwired but individuals need to adapt their calling behaviours according to the situation. Such learning necessitates recognising locally relevant dangers and may take place via their own experience or by observing others. To investigate monkeys alarm calling behaviour, we carried out a field experiment in which we exposed juvenile vervet monkeys to unfamiliar raptor models in the presence of audiences that differed in experience and reliability. We used audience age as a proxy for experience and relatedness as a proxy for reliability, while quantifying audience reactions to the models. We found a negative correlation between alarm call production and callers’ age. Adults never alarm called, compared to juveniles. We found no overall effect of audience composition and size, with juveniles calling more when with siblings than mothers or unrelated individuals. Finally, concerning audience reactions to the models, we observed juveniles remained silent with vigilant mothers and only alarm called with ignoring mothers, whereas we observed the opposite for siblings: juveniles remained silent with ignoring siblings and called with vigilant siblings. Despite the small sample size, juvenile vervet monkeys, confronted with unfamiliar and potentially dangerous raptors, seem to rely on others to decide whether to alarm call, demonstrating that the choice of the model may play an important key role in the ontogeny of primate alarm call behaviour.
- PublicationAccès libreCall combinations and compositional processing in wild chimpanzees(2023)Abstract : Through syntax, i.e., the combination of words into larger phrases, language can express a limitless number of messages. Data in great apes, our closest-living relatives, are central to the reconstruction of syntax’s phylogenetic origins, yet are currently lacking. Here, we provide evidence for syntactic-like structuring in chimpanzee communication. Chimpanzees produce “alarm-huus” when surprised and “waa-barks” when potentially recruiting conspecifics during aggression or hunting. Anecdotal data suggested chimpanzees combine these calls specifically when encountering snakes. Using snake presentations, we confirm call combinations are produced when individuals encounter snakes and find that more individuals join the caller after hearing the combination. To test the meaning-bearing nature of the call combination, we use playbacks of artificially-constructed call combinations and both independent calls. Chimpanzees react most strongly to call combinations, showing longer looking responses, compared with both independent calls. We propose the “alarm-huu + waa-bark” represents a compositional syntactic-like structure, where the meaning of the call combination is derived from the meaning of its parts. Our work suggests that compositional structures may not have evolved de novo in the human lineage, but that the cognitive building-blocks facilitating syntax may have been present in our last common ancestor with chimpanzees.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDettes de survie versus dettes d’accumulation : la financiarisation au prisme des inégalités sociales en Suisse(2023)Combinant deux approches a priori opposées de la dette – une approche située et une approche homogénéisante –, l’article éclaire le rôle de la dette dans le creusement des inégalités socioéconomiques dans le contexte helvétique contemporain. L’approche plurielle met en lumière une répartition inégale de dettes de nature et de forme variées dans la population. Du fait de ces inégalités d’accès, certaines catégories de la population sont cantonnées aux dettes de survie alors que les dettes « positives » concernent les franges les plus privilégiées qui s’en servent comme levier d’accumulation. L’article s’intéresse ensuite aux conséquences de l’appréhension de la dette en tant que catégorie unifiée dont le cadre institutionnel et moral participe à forger son caractère punitif et pénalisant pour les plus fragiles. Alors que la finance s’impose comme point de passage obligé des activités humaines interdépendantes, la centralité de la dette et sa sacralisation contribuent à nourrir et figer les hiérarchies sociales en Suisse. Combining two approaches to debt, this article sheds light on the role of debt in the widening of socioeconomic inequalities in the contemporary Swiss context. The plural approach highlights the unequal distribution of debts of various types and forms in the population. Because of these inequalities of access, certain categories of the population are confined to “problematic” survival debts, whereas “positive” debts concern the most privileged fringes, who use them as a lever for accumulation. The article then looks at the consequences of debt enforcement where debt is entirely homogeneous and highly punitive, with strong negative consequences for the most precarious segments of the population. While financialization has meant that the interdependence of human activities is increasingly based on financial relations, the centrality of debt and its sacralization contribute to fueling and freezing social hierarchies in Switzerland.
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- PublicationMétadonnées seulement
- PublicationAccès libreLe rapport écrit-oral. Tendances dissimilatrices, tendances assimilatrices(1998-2-11)Après un bref rappel des problèmes que soulève l'opposition langue parlée vs. langue écrite, l'A. montre que cette opposition est sujette à des évolutions contradictoires. Mettant l'accent sur un double mouvement de différenciation et d'homogénéisation, elle analyse la relation entre écrit et oral et illustre le rapport entre pragmatique et syntaxe
- PublicationAccès libre
- PublicationMétadonnées seulement(?-p-Cymene)bis-(trichlorido-stannyl)(triethoxy-phosphine-?P)ruthenium(II)(2009)In the title complex, [RuSn(2)(C(10)H(14))Cl(6)(C(6)H(15)O(3)P)], the Ru-Sn bond lengths [2.5619 (3) and 2.5669 (3) Å] are about 0.3 Å shorter than the sum of the covalent Ru and Sn radii (1.46 + 1.39 = 2.85 Å), in line with other structurally characterized arene ruthenium trichlorido-stannyl derivatives. The Ru(II) atom is surrounded by a para-cymene, a triethylphosphite and two trichloridostannyl ligands in a typical piano-stool coordination.[on SciFinder (R)]
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDes obligations résultant d'actes illicites (éd. Claire Huguenin/Reto M. Hilty)(Zurich/Bâle/Genève: Schulthess, 2013)Mueller, C. (2013). Art. 46-63 (Des obligations résultant d'actes illicites), in: C. Huguenin/R. Hilty (éd.), OR/CO 2020, Zurich/Bâle/Genève 2013, p. 152-195 (avec Walter Fellmann et Franz Werro)
Süss-Fink, Georg 430
Therrien, Bruno 395
Bohnet, François 306
Zittoun, Tania 287
Bohnet, François 125
Institut de biologie 2355
Institut de chimie 1018
Lope de Vega 82